Mr Silverlight Drive-by Meet Volatility Timelines

Sunday, May 18, 2014 Posted by Corey Harrell 3 comments
I recently had the opportunity to attend the Volatility Windows Malware and Memory Forensics Training. Prior to the training, I used memory forensics (and thus Volatility) in different capacities but it wasn't a technique I leveraged when responding to security events and incidents during incident response activities. This was an area I wanted to improve upon going into the training. As the training went on and more material and labs were covered I kept thinking to myself how I intended to incorporate memory forensics into my response process. To use the technique when triaging live systems remotely over the network. The labs in the training provided numerous scenarios about using memory forensics on compromised systems but I wanted to further explore it with a simulated a security event. This post explores Volatility usage against an infected system's memory image by first determining: is the system infected and if so, how did it become infected in the first place.

Short Thought About the Training

Before diving into the memory image I first wanted to provide a short thought about the training. The training is not just about a single memory forensics tool named Volatility. The training goes in-depth in numerous topics including Windows internals, malware reversing, Windows data structures, how those structures are parsed, and bypassing encryption. I was looking for an in-depth course and I found it with Volatility. It walks you through exploring the Windows internals, the structures, how they can be parsed, and then actually doing it in labs. This layout results in knowing not just how to use tools for memory forensics but understanding what they are doing and what they are suppose to be doing. To top it off, the content is put into context as it relates to Digital Forensics and Incident Response (DFIR). All in all, it was a great training and  I highly recommend it to anyone looking to get more memory forensics knowledge and skills. For a more detailed review refer to TekDefense's Review - Malware and Memory Forensics with Volatility (just keep in mind the content has been updated since his review.)

Is the System Infected?

To set up the simulation I configured an extremely vulnerable virtual machine and then browsed to potentially malicious websites. I suspended the VM to grab the vmem file (memory) once I saw the first indication the system may be compromised. This is where the simulation starts to determine if this system is infected.

I first scanned the memory image for any previous networking activity that may be tied to malware by executing the command below:

python -f Win7.vmem --profile=Win7SP0x86 netscan

The picture below shows the partial output from netscan. A few different items jump out. The first is the process 0320.dll PID 3812 listening on the TCP ports 61779 and 8681. These ports are not typically open on Windows systems which made this a good lead. The other item to note is that Internet Explorer was active at one point in time.

The netscan plug-in provided some information but additional information is needed for PID 3812 0320.dll. I first wnated to know the command used to launch the program and I did this with pstree plug-in with the -v switch

python -f Win7.vmem --profile=Win7SP0x86 pstree -v

The program's location in the temp folder made it even more suspicious as being malicious.

To get a better understanding about how PID 3812 started  I ran the pstree plug-in again without the -v switch to make it easier to see.

python -f Win7.vmem --profile=Win7SP0x86 pstree

The Internet Explorer process PID 572 spawned the PID 3812 0320.dll.

The netscan plug-in showed that this Internet Explorer was reaching out to the IP address A search with the Malware Analysis search provided a few different hits including one to VirusTotal. The passive DNS showed this IP associated with domains flagged as malicious as well as a malicious file being downloaded from there.

To get a better idea about any processes that may had started and exited around the time PID 3812 0320.dll executed I ran the psscan plug-in.

python -f Win7.vmem --profile=Win7SP0x86 psscan

I highlighted the other processes that started around the same time but it didn't provide any more substantial leads.

0x000000007dd8f510 iexplore.exe       3600   2504 0x7d7a75c0 2014-05-11 01:38:00 UTC+0000
0x000000007e4d1030 0320.dll           3812    572 0x7d7a7540 2014-05-11 01:46:02 UTC+0000
0x000000007dad3d40 msiexec.exe        4036    492 0x7d7a7700 2014-05-11 01:46:38 UTC+0000
0x000000007e243030 dllhost.exe        2292    612 0x7d7a71e0 2014-05-11 01:46:55 UTC+0000   2014-05-11 01:47:00 UTC+0000

To see what access the PID 3812 process had on the system the getsids plug-in was used.

python -f Win7.vmem --profile=Win7SP0x86 getsids -p 3812

The lines below show 0320.dll was running in the context of the lab user account and had administrative rights to the system.

0320.dll (3812): S-1-5-21-2793522790-2301028668-542554750-1000 (lab)
0320.dll (3812): S-1-5-32-544 (Administrators)

I continued my focus on PID 3812 0320.dll to get more information about it by seeing what other items it is interacting with. To see it's handles I used the following:

python -f Win7.vmem --profile=Win7SP0x86 handles -p 3812

The only item of note in the handles output was the process's mutant; maybe it could help in researching in the malware.

0x8583b278   3812       0xd0   0x1f0001 Mutant           Y7X-TYAA-X7A

The next item I explored was the process's loaded DLLs.

python -f Win7.vmem --profile=Win7SP0x86 dlllist -p 3812

Listed among the DLLs was one item located in the lab user profile; C:\Users\lab\AppData\Local\sattech.dll.

The last item I wanted to explore was to see if the process leveraged code injection with the command.

python -f Win7.vmem --profile=Win7SP0x86 malfind

The output showed the following processes had injected code into them: explorer.exe (PID 300), wmpnetwk.exe (PID 2116), iexplore.exe (PID 2504), iexplore.exe (PID 2504), iexplore.exe (PID 572), iexplore.exe (PID 3600), and msiexec.exe (PID 4036).

Exploring 0320.dll and sattech.dll

Volatility enabled me to quickly identify two suspicious files indicating the system is infected. The next step was to explore these files to actually confirm the infection. Both files were dumped from memory with the following commands (first one dumps 0320.dll while second dumps sattech.dll.)

python -f Win7.vmem --profile=Win7SP0x86 procdump -p 3812 -D .

python -f Win7.vmem --profile=Win7SP0x86 dlldump -p 3812 -b 0x10000000 -D .

For brevity I'm not posting everything I did to examine these dumped files. The one item I wanted to note was that the strings in 0320.dll referenced the registry key SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run which may be its persistence.  Knowing this was a simulated environment I ran both files through VirusTotal on 5/11/14 (the detections were low: 1/52 for 3020.dll and 10/52 for sattech.dll). I rescanned them while writing this post and the detections increased as can be seen in the 0320.dll VT report and sattech.dll VT report.

How Did the System Become Infected?

Memory forensics so far was able to confirm the infection, locate malware, provide clues about the malware's purpose, and extract the malware for further analysis. The next question I needed memory forensics to help me answer was how did the infection occur in the first place. An effective technique to address this question is timeline analysis and the Volatility training really opened my eyes to the additional capabilities memory provides to this technique. To fully explore Volatility timelines I'm performing timeline analysis in three separate stages. First only using the $MFT, then the timeliner plug-in (numerous time related objects), and finally the NTFS change journal ($USNJrnl).

Exploring the memory image to confirm the infection provided a few leads I leveraged in timeline analysis. There were the two files of interest: C:\Users\lab\AppData\Local\Temp\0320.dll and C:\Users\lab\AppData\Local\sattech.dll. Plus, the timeframe of interest was 2014-05-11 01:46:02 UTC+0000 since this was when the 0320.dll process started. I searched on these indicators and looked at the system activity that proceeded it and occurred after it. However, for clarity I'm presenting my timeline analysis in sequential order.

$MFT Timeline

The commands below generates a timeline in bodyfile format with the $MFT records found in memory. Then the timeline is converted with mactime, grep for the date of interest, and then formatted with awk to remove unneeded columns.

python -f Win7.vmem --profile=Win7SP0x86 mftparser --output=body --output-file=mft-body

mactime -b mft-body -d -z UTC > mft_timeline.csv

cat mft-timeline.csv | grep -i "Sun May 11 2014" | awk -F, '{print $1, $3, $8}' > mft-timeline_05-11-14.csv

The image below shows the MFT timeline starting at 05/11/14 01:45:59 UTC.

The first few lines show Internet activity with files being created in Internet Explorer's temporary files cache. The last three lines shows activity for the C:\Windows\SoftwareDistribution folder (which is associated with Windows update) and file creation inside the Silverlight application folder (C:\Users\lab\AppData\LocalLow\Microsoft\Silverlight). The timeline continues as shown in the image below.

The activity for involving the SoftwareDistribution and Silverlight folders continues before the 0320.dll file is created on the system at 05/11/14 01:46:02. Solely, based on this activity it provides a clue to how the system became infected. There was Internet activity followed by Silverlight activity then malware appearing on the system. This activity points to a drive-by that targeted a vulnerability in the Silverlight application. This shows again the significance of exploring attack vector artifacts and it's an area I've been looking in to for some time (it applies to all types of attacks). I just opted to stop blogging about it and only recently posted the CVE 2013-0074 & 3896 Silverlight Exploit Artifacts documenting Silverlight exploits to provide context to the activity in this timeline. The image below continues with the $MFT timeline.

It shows that the sattech.dll file was created on the system one second after 3020.dll. The last portion of the timeline I'm discussing is shown below.

The Silverlight application activity surrounds the malware further confirming the attack vector used against the system. In addition, at 01:46:10 artifacts associated with program execution started appearing on the system. There are prefetch files showing both Silverlight application and malware executed.

Volatility Timeliner and $MFT Timeline

The $MFT timeline created from the memory image enabled me to answer the "how" question. However, adding addition timeline data will make the events surrounding the infection more clear. The commands below generates the timeliner timeline in bodyfile format and combines it with the $MFT bodyfile. Then the timeline is converted with mactime, grep for the date of interest, and then formatted with awk to remove unneeded columns. Side note: one item I'm hoping Volalitity incorporates into the timeliner plug-in is the ability to specify what timeline artifacts to parse instead of parsing everything (this change should make timeline creation faster and more focused.)

python -f Win7.vmem --profile=Win7SP0x86 timeliner --output=body --output-file=timeline-body

cat mft-body timeline-body > timeliner-mft-body

mactime -b timeliner-mft-body -d -z UTC > timeliner-mft-timeline.csv

cat timeliner-mft-timeline.csv | grep -i "Sun May 11 2014" | awk -F, '{print $1, $3, $8}' > mft-timeliner_05-11-14.csv

The image below shows the timeliner and $MFT timeline starting at 05/11/14 01:45:59 UTC.

Right off the bat the other timeline data pulled from the memory image provided more context about what happened. Various Internet explorer processes were connecting to the freshdekor[dot]com domain. Remember the Volatility netscan plug-in output showed Internet Explorer connecting to two different IP addresses and one of them was One of the Google searches on this IP address lead to a VirusTotal report containing passive DNS information. One of the passive domains listed for the IP address was freshdekor[dot]com. It's nice stuff how everything ties together more clearly. The image below continues with the timeline.

The activity is for the files in Internet Explorer's temporary files cache but now I know these came from the freshdekor[dot]com domain. The image below is the next portion of the timeline.

The first line shows something very cool. The Internet Explorer PID 572 is loading the coreclr.dll dll at 01:46:00. Running grep across the dlllist plug-in showed the full path to the dll which was c:\Program Files\Microsoft Silverlight\5.0.61118.0\coreclr.dll. A Google search for the dll indicated it is a Silverlight plug-in. This line is showing iexplore.exe loading the Silverlight plug-in within a second after visiting the freshdekor[dot]com domain. The third line from the top is cut off in the screenshot but it shows Internet Explorer PID 572 accessing the registry key SOFTWARE\APPDATALOW\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\SILVERLIGHT\PERMISSIONS for the lab user account. The rest of this timeline portion is more IE history artifacts for the domain in question. Continuing on with the timeline in the image below.

This activity is from the $MFT and was shown previously. However, now it's clear Internet Explorer loaded the Silverlight plug-in for a Silverlight application on a website. The Silverlight activity in this timeline portion was the result of a Silverlight application which was the exploit. The image below continues with the timeline.

Besides the threads it is the same activity shown previously involving Silverlight and the SoftwareDistribution folder. Continuing on with the timeline below.

This brings us to 01:46:02 which is when the 0320.dll process started. The activity shows the dlls being loaded (minus the sattech.dll dll), process created, and first thread started for 0320.dll PID 3812. This confirmed that the 0320.dll executed as soon as it was dropped onto the system. The image below shows what happened next.

The sattech.dll was created on the system and loaded by 0320.dll PID 3812 one second after the process started. The last section I'm highlighting in the timeliner/$MFT timeline is below.

The activity is from $MFT records and is the program execution artifacts mentioned previously.

NTFS Change Journal, Volatility Timeliner and $MFT Timeline

The timeliner combined with the mftparser plug-in provided a wealth of information about how the system became infected. It even provide additional information about the attack that would never be found on the host. There is still yet another source of timeline data that can be added to the timeline. During the week I was taking the Volatility training, the instructors gave us the heads up that Tom Spencer released the USNParser plug-in to parse the NTFS change journal. The $USNJrnl is an excellent source to reference as I illustrated in my post Re-Introducing $UsnJrnl. To further explore memory timelines, I downloaded the plug-in and ran the commands below. It first generates the $USNJrnl in bodyfile format and then combines it with the timeliner/MFT bodyfile. The timeline is then converted with mactime, grep for the date of interest, and then formatted with awk to remove unneeded columns.

python -f Win7.vmem --profile=Win7SP0x86 usnparser --output=body --output-file=usn-body

cat usn-body timeliner-mft-body > timeline-all-body

mactime -b timeline-all-body -d -z UTC > timeline-all-timeline.csv

cat timeline-all-timeline.csv | grep -i "Sun May 11 2014" | awk -F, '{print $1, $3, $8}' > timeline-all_05-11-14.csv

The image below shows the $USNJrnl, $MFT, and timeliner timeline starting at 05/11/14 01:45:59 UTC.

The $USNJrnl didn't provide much useful in this portion of the timeline since it only shows the edb.log inside the SoftwareDistribution\DataStore\Logs folder. The timeline continues in the image below.

The first $USNJrnl activity shows the mssl.lck being referenced. This file was referenced in my CVE 2013-0074 & 3896 Silverlight Exploit Artifacts post. Even if I wasn't aware about these exploit artifacts, mssl.lck can still be tied to Silverlight by grepping for the file in the filescan plug-in output. This shows mssl.lck located in the C:\Users\lab\AppData\LocalLow\Microsoft\Silverlight folder. The image below is the next part of the timeline.

The additional information shown in this activity highlights an item that was present in the previous timelines. Prior to Internet Explorer PID 572 loading the Silverlight plug-in (coreclr.dll), the webpage stored in the temporary Internet files cache was named 8fdhe54wg1[1].htm was visited. This highlights another file to examine closer on the host to determine if it was responsible for serving up the malicious Silverlight application. The image below is the next part of the timeline.

The activity is involving the same files and domains already discussed. The timeline continues below.

Just prior to the activity for the BITFC11.tmp file in the Silverlight folder there is more activity involving the C:\Windows\SoftwareDistribution\DataStore\Logs folder. This time around it is for the tmp.edb file. The image below is the next portion of the timeline.

There is no additional items to note so the timeline continues in the image below.

Again, there isn't any additional activity of interest but I'm still posting these images for others to see the timeline in its entirely. The image below shows the next part of the timeline.

The $USNJrnl shows activity for the Silverlight application and the timeline continues below.

This portion was shown in the timeliner/$MFT timeline where the 0320.dll PID 3812 process started. The image below shows what happens next.

After the 0320.dll PID 3812 process started then there is a lot of activity for a tmp file in the Windows\Temp folder as shown below.

The $USNJrnl also reflects the sattech.dll file being created on the system. The last image of the timeline shows more information about the Silverlight application and program execution artifacts I mentioned previously.

Memory Forensics for the Win

As I went into the Volatility Windows Malware and Memory Forensics Training I wanted to leverage memory forensics more when responding to security events and incidents during incident response. The way I intend to use this technique is for analysis of live systems remotely over the network. As a method to investigate a security alert such as a system reaching out to a known malicious domain. Memory forensics could provide a wealth of information for this type of alert. Tying the specific network activity to a process and then determining where the process came from in the first place. Very similar to the simulation I did for this post. I may had started out wanting to leverage memory forensics more but I ended up with more knowledge and an improved skillset to help me hold the last line of defense for my organization.

CVE 2013-0074 & 3896 Silverlight Exploit Artifacts

Tuesday, May 13, 2014 Posted by Corey Harrell 0 comments
Artifact Name

Exploit Artifacts for CVE 2013-0074/3896 (Silverlight) Vulnerabilities

Attack Vector Category



Two vulnerabilities present in Microsoft Silverlight 5 that in combination enable an attacker to execute arbitary code.

CVE 2013-3896 affects Microsoft Silverlight 5 before 5.1.20913.0. The vulnerability is due to not properly validating pointers during access to Silverlight elements, which allows remote attackers to obtain sensitive information via a crafted Silverlight application. The significance of this vulnerability as explained in TrendMicro's  A Look At A Silverlight Exploit article:

"The exploit uses this vulnerability to leak a pointer address in memory, and then uses this leaked address to compute the base address of, bypassing ASLR. Later, this base address is used to compute the ROP gadgets in order to bypass DEP."  

CVE 2013-0074 affects Microsoft Silverlight 5 before 5.1.20125.0. The vulnerability is due to not properly validating pointers during HTML object rendering, which allows remote attackers to execute arbitrary code via a crafted Silverlight application. The TrendMicro article stated this vulnerability "is used to control the execution flow to jump to the ROP gadget."

Attack Description

The significance of these Silverlight vulnerabilities is their usage in mass attacks through exploit kits. Furthermore, Packetstorm security posted the exploit code for these vulnerabilities making them public and thus available to anyone to use them including exploit kits' authors.

This description was obtained from the very detailed Malware don't need Coffee blog post CVE-2013-0074/3896 (Silverlight) integrates Exploit Kits. To truly understand this attack I highly recommend reading this blog post.

     1. User visits a malicious website.

     2. The website serves up a malicious Silverlight application to compromise the system.

Exploits Tested

Metasploit exploit/windows/browser/ms13_022_silverlight_script_object

Target System Information

Windows 7 SP0 x86 Virtual Machine with Silverlight v 5.0.60818.0 (no Silverlight applications were executed on the system prior to test)

Different Artifacts based on Administrator Rights

Not tested

Different Artifacts based on Tested Software Versions

Not tested

Potential Artifacts

The potential artifacts include the 2013-0074/3896 exploit and the changes the exploit causes in the operating system environment. The artifacts can be grouped under the following three areas:

     * Temporary File Creation
     * Indications of the Vulnerable Application Executing
     * Internet Activity

Note: the documenting of the potential artifacts attempted to identify the overall artifacts associated with the vulnerability being exploited as opposed to the specific artifacts unique to the Metasploit. As a result, the actual artifact storage locations and filenames are inside of brackets in order to distinguish what may be unique to the testing environment.

     Temporary File Creation

- Webpage created in a temporary Internet files storage location on the system within the timeframe of interest. [C:\ Users\lab\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Content.IE5\I87XK24W\nXKoGc[1].htm] The webpage contains the code to load the Silverlight application exploit. The code includes: the data/type variables indicating " application/x-silverlight-2" and the InitParams indicating what to load. The image below shows the webpage code (please note: the InitParams in Metasploit contains the code to execute while on other systems it may point to an actual file)

     Indications of the Vulnerable Application Executing

- Folder activity involving the Silverlight application. [C:\Users\lab\AppData\LocalLow\Microsoft\Silverlight]

- File creation inside the Silverlight application folder. [C:\ Users\lab\AppData\LocalLow\Microsoft\Silverlight\BIT65AC.tmp and C: \Users\lab\AppData\LocalLow\Microsoft\Silverlight\mssl.lck]

- Registry modification involving Silverlight in the user profile's NTUSER.DAT hive the exploit executed under. [HKU\Software\AppDataLow\Software\Microsoft\Silverlight and HKU\ Software\AppDataLow\Software\Microsoft\Silverlight\Permissions] (note: this artifact may be due to Silverlight executing for the first time)

- Entries for Silverlight programs that executed for the first time on the system inside the RecentFileCache.bcf file (Windows 7 artifact) [c:\program files\microsoft silverlight\5.0.61118.0\agcp.exe]

- References to Silverlight programs in the CONHOST.EXE's prefetch file handles [\DEVICE\HARDDISKVOLUME1\PROGRAM FILES\MICROSOFT SILVERLIGHT\5.0.61118.0\COREGEN.EXE]

     Internet Activity

- Web browser history of user accessing websites within the timeframe of interest. [lab user account accessed the computer running Metasploit]

- Files located in the Temporary Internet Files folder. [Users\lab\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Content.IE5]

Timeline View of Potential Artifacts

The images below shows the above artifacts in a timeline of the file system from the test Windows 7 SP0 system. The timeline only includes the file system metadata. The purpose of the timeline is to help illustrate what the artifacts look like on a compromised system.

A few tidbits about items listed in the timeline that are not discussed above. First, in numerous tests when Silverlight executes it initiates activity in the C:\Windows\SoftwareDistribution\DataStore. This folder is associated with Windows updates and at times it referenced Silverlight activity.  Secondly, in numerous tests when Silverlight executes there is activity in the C:\Windows\System32\wdi folder. The files didn't specifically reference Silverlight but the activity was consistent. In both cases, I opted to not include these artifacts until it can be determined that this activity is directly associated with Silverlight being exploited.

     * MFT Timeline

     * Change Journal Timeline